UPPER PRIMARY CLASSES
AGE 9 - 11 YEARS - CLASS SIZE 15-20
Upper Primary is a three-year program where learners are exposed to a broad curriculum and given an opportunity for exploration and experimentation.
In Upper Primary, the pupils are encouraged to exercise and develop different skills that are in alignment with their natural talents and gifts. Every child is gifted in certain areas and the purpose of education is to refine them.
- Home Science
- Science and Technology
- Religious Education
- Creative Arts
- Physical and Health Education
- Social Studies
Upper Primary Curriculum
Science is the practice of engaging with the human pursuit of knowledge in order to understand relationships within the living and non-living universe. Science is the mother of invention. Since Kenya’s Vision 2030 envisages an industrialized and knowledge-based economy, then science must be taught in primary education. Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) are identified in both Vision 2030 and the Constitution as key drivers of the economy in the 21st century.
Technology, which basically refers to use of tools is introduced in science at this level. This enables learners to prepare for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) in subsequent levels of the education cycle.
This subject builds on the competencies introduced at lower primary level under the subject of environment. Inquiry based learning approaches is employed throughout the learning experiences in this area as advocated by John Dewey’s social constructivist theory which emphasizes that the learner should be given the opportunity to learn through participation in hands-on activities.
The learning of Kiswahili as national language is a continuation of the same from lower primary. The grammar in these language is further developed so that reading and writing skills are enhanced so that by the end of the level the learners are quite proficient in this language. They are able to write and communicate effectively in this language.
After their first exposure to reading and writing at lower primary level, learners at upper primary level are exposed to higher order knowledge, skills and attitudes on language development. This enhances their reading and writing skills to be able to communicate effectively in English.
We live in a world of mathematics whereby we count, add, subtract or divide throughout our social interaction. Mathematics involves understanding numbers and the numerical operations used to develop strategies for mental mathematics, estimation and computational fluency. It is impossible to think of a world without mathematics. It is applied in the business, scientific, social, religious and political worlds. It is therefore imperative that children are taught mathematics from pre-primary age.
At this level mathematics builds on the competencies acquired by the learner in the area of mathematical activities at lower primary. It also enhances the learner’s competencies in numeracy as a foundation for STEM in higher levels of the education cycle.
This is a multi-disciplinary area of study that encompasses foods and nutrition, meal management, home management, clothing and textiles. At this level, the learner is exposed to basic knowledge, skills and attitudes on planning, preparing and cooking healthy foods in order to prevent and manage illnesses. Other components include First Aid, aspects of personal hygiene and good grooming, managing adolescence, and needlework among others. Emphasis will be on practical aspects in order to develop good personal habits.
The subject will build on the knowledge, skills and attitudes that were introduced in lower primary under the subjects of hygiene and nutrition and environmental activities. Home science will also strengthen the foundation for development of higher competencies in lower secondary home science and health education.
Kenya requires competent manpower for its agro-based economy. Agriculture should be taught from the earliest levels of education. In upper primary, the agriculture subject builds on competencies introduced in lower primary under the subject of environment activities. It also enhances the learner’s competencies in participation in sustainable development.
Learners are taught how to maximize the use of available spaces and resources in order to practice agricultural skills. Learners will be involved in the practical activities of producing both indigenous and exotic foods to enable them contribute to enhancing food security in the country. These skills will also enhance the competencies of agriculture in lower secondary.
This is a multi-disciplinary area of study that encompasses art, craft and music. It involves acquiring and applying discipline-specific concepts, techniques and related vocabulary to increase capacity for the effective pursuit of artistic goals.
At this level the learner is exposed to deeper knowledge, skills and attitudes on the three disciplines in order to build on the competencies introduced in lower primary in the integrated subject of movement and creative activities (art, craft, music and physical education).
In line with Dewey’s social constructivism theory, emphasis will be on an experiential, participatory approach that will give the learner an opportunity to articulate their thoughts through creativity and collaboration. This will prepare the learner to transit to lower secondary level.
The National Council for the Social Studies defines social studies as the integrated study of the social sciences and humanities to promote civic competence. Social studies as a discipline derives its content from various sources (Marlow 1996). These are: history, geography, civics, religious education, language, mathematics, natural sciences, music dance and drama, law, economics, psychology and philosophy.
The primary purpose of social studies is to help young people make informed and reasoned decisions for the public good as citizens of a culturally diverse, democratic society in an interdependent world. Social studies provide opportunities for the learner to develop an understanding of the environment and participate effectively in its activities. The learner gets the opportunity to appreciate the changing environment and gain a realization of his or her place, privileges, rights and responsibilities as a citizen.
The knowledge gained exposes the learner to a variety of opinions and lifestyles. The aim of social studies is also to provide the learner with sustainable skills and the ability to face challenges in life. Social studies are essential to understanding the complexity of the world.